Programa produzido por Mario Haberfeld, idealizador do Projeto Onçafari, César Augusto e Adriano Gambarini. Hoje o assunto é a habituação dos leopardos, na África. Foi onde tudo começou. A idéia do projeto Onçafari surgiu daí. Imagens interessantes de um leopardo fêmea comendo um Impala e dividindo a caça com 2 filhotes.
O canal Onçafari, aqui no youtube, tem um novo programa todas as quintas-feiras. Aqui, falamos de habituação, fotografia e conservação das onças pintadas e de outros animais ao redor do Mundo.
Produção: Mario Haberfeld
Fotos: Projeto Onçafari, Mario Haberfeld.
Thank you for the many phone calls, emails and comments concerning the last newsletter (newsletter no. 89). They are much appreciated and apologies that I cannot answer each and every one, however, I will try to answer some of your questions.
As a businessman, you will ask the question: “What is the return on my investment?” The answer is, it is not a good one compared to other investments. Money can be made out of tigers by photographing them, filming them and hunting male tigers. I will immediately dismiss the hunting, although lucrative, it is illegal and unethical.
The photographic potential is huge and growing rapidly for the simple fact that the tiger countries in Asia have not conserved the tiger. Even in India, the traditional stronghold of the tiger, tourists are having bad experiences. Large amounts of money are being laid out on safaris that produce no good sightings and few good pictures. The last remaining habituated tigers are surrounded by many vehicles, all jostling for position. This further destroys the experience.
The alternative to Asia is to invest in an ex-situ conservation project in South Africa. However, to get to view the tiger, one must first buy suitable land. This is expensive. Once you have the land, you must then fence it with a 3.3 metre electrical fence. This cost is around R130,000 per kilometer (a lion only needs a 2.4 metre electrical fence). Having fenced the land, you need to stock with suitable prey. (A blesbuck will cost you R1,500 per head, a blue wildebeest R2,500 per head).
After stocking and fencing, you need to build a lodge to accommodate your guests. Therefore, at a million rands per bed, an 8 bed lodge will set you back R8 million.
The most efficient way to get your guests in, is to fly them, so you need a tarmac runway suitable for jets. This will set you back several million rands.
To run your lodge and tiger safaris, you will need trained staff and you will need to pay them well to compete with other operations. (Tourism remains the best way to create jobs in Africa).
Staff need proper accommodation and this too is expensive. The old staff accommodation on sheep farms is unacceptable.
Only now can you start to get a return on your money and you will have to run high occupancies to be profitable.
The fact that you have wild tigers, gives you a competitive edge but it doesn’t guarantee you success. You are competing against many fine established private lodges and National Parks in South Africa, Botswana, Kenya and Tanzania.
The key is to build the tiger experience into a package to the south which includes shark diving, whale watching and the garden route. To the north, packages with Kruger National Park, private lodges and Mozambique will be very successful.
The areas around Tiger Canyons have been subjected to sheep farming for over a hundred years. Man-made desertification has damaged the ‘Garden of Eden’. (Fortunately, sheep farming is a failing land use system). The good news is that the land can be restored if you are prepared to partnership with nature.
One of the most rewarding things that I have done in my life, is to release large tracts of land by removing sheep fences. In addition, by closing the windmills, the water table lifts and fountains begin to flow. Mini migrations return as the animals can now move. Birds, fish, frogs and insects all respond as step by step the ‘Garden of Eden’ returns to its former glory.
All of this is dependant on the tiger and the people who will come to see and photograph it. If large enough tracts of land can be assembled, lion, leopard, tiger and cheetah can all co-exist in one park. This would be unique in the world.
As the worlds human population moves towards 10 billion, more and more people are looking to move away from the mega-cities to the small towns and rural areas. People are searching for a healthier, simpler and more spiritual existence. People are searching for projects which bring meaning to their own lives and to those of endangered species.
To take a tiger (there are 1,000 wild tigers left and we are losing one wild tiger every day), nurture it, release it onto the land, protect it, and see it produce cubs, is certainly the most spiritual thing that I have ever done in my life.
If you are looking for a good financial return on your money, you are looking in the wrong place. If you are looking to speculate by raising land prices, this is not for you.
If you have dollars or euros which are strengthening against the rand, you start with an enormous advantage. If you are prepared to buy into the ‘Greater Cause’ which includes:
1) Helping save the tiger.
2) Creating jobs in depressed communities.
3) Up-skilling and uplifting people to work in the tourist industry.
If you are prepared to include the financial, environmental and spiritual investment and are like-minded, then feel free to contact me.
In the last newsletter (newsletter no. 89), I listed at random, several wealthy individuals and the investments they have made. This was not criticism. They are fine and worthwhile investments. I was merely pointing out that no one individual has picked up the ‘Tiger Cause’ and there may be an opportunity there.
The last thing a barn swallow probably expects as it’s flying low over a lake is to be met with a mouthful of needle-sharp teeth emerging from the water. And if the bird happens to be flying over a certain lake in South Africa, that may well be the last thing it sees.
A recent study has caught what researchers say are the first scientific observations of a fish launching itself out of the water to catch birds in midair.
“There are more than 14,000 freshwater fish species in the world,” wrote Nico Smit, director of the unit for environmental sciences and management at North-West University in Potchefstroom, South Africa, in an email. “[But] of those, only about five species are known to prey on birds, so I definitely don’t think it is a widespread behavior.”
For the most part, when fish feed on birds, it’s a meal of opportunity, Smit noted. Either the birds have accidentally fallen into the water, or waterfowl like ducks just happen to paddle over the wrong stretch of a lake or river.
But during a 15 day survey in February 2010, Smit and colleagues saw African tigerfish—which populate a storage lake for the Schroda Dam in South Africa—snatching barn swallows out of the air, they report in a study published online last month in the Journal of Fish Biology.
Unlike other instances of fish eating birds, barn swallows actually seem to be a fairly regular part of a tigerfish’s summer diet when the swallows are available, Smit said. “[The fish] have been incredibly well adapted to hunt the flying birds as part of their daily routine.”
Video taken by study co-author Francois Jacobs, also of North-West University in South Africa, is just getting major media attention now.
Beginning around twilight, tigerfish near the Schroda Dam patrol deep open water near well-vegetated areas. They exhibit a less active lifestyle during the day, which they spend in the deeper, more sheltered water, the study authors write.
But during the 2011 survey, researchers noticed that five of the tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) they had tagged exhibited increases in their midmorning activities.
Smit and colleagues did not observe any of their tagged fish leaping for barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), but they did observe other tigerfish catching the birds in midair.
The fish would either follow the birds in a surface pursuit before leaping up to try and catch them, or the tigerfish would track the swallows from deeper in the water and launch into the air to ambush them.
Smit marvels at the skill it takes for these fish to capture birds on the wing. Tigerfish have to spot a fast-flying swallow from the water, exceed the bird’s speed, compensate for refraction—or the fact that the angle of light changes when it goes from air to water—and then leap out of the water to grab the bird, he explained.
Over the course of their study, researchers saw up to 20 successful attempts on flying barn swallows by tigerfish in one day.
“During the 15-day survey as many as 300 [barn swallows] were preyed upon by the local [tigerfish] population, indicating that this feeding behavior is not occasional,” the study authors write.
They speculate that the scarcity of other food in the Schroda Dam lake, like other species of fish, have driven these tigerfish to attempt loftier prey.
“I think this research also illustrates that we still actually know incredibly little about the behavior of freshwater fish in Africa,” Smit said. “The fact that this amazing behavior has escaped documentation for so long surely means that a lot more needs to be discovered.”
This weekend the Dallas Safari Club (DSC) plans to auction off the chance to kill one of the world’s last black rhinos—and shockingly, the U.S. government may be okay with it despite the species’ protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. According to DSC, which describes itself as both a pro-conservation and pro-hunting group, the proceeds of the January auction will go toward African conservation efforts, thereby creating a loophole that would allow the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to grant a permit to import the dead animal as a trophy. (See “Rhino Hunt Permit Auction Sets Off Conservation Debate.”)
With around 1,800 black rhinos remaining in Namibia (where the hunt is slated to take place) out of a worldwide population of only 5,055, the announcement has caused more than a few double-takes. Comedian Stephen Colbert nailed it when he ripped into the obvious irony of the “kill it to save it” argument on his show The Colbert Report in October when the scheme was announced.
As Colbert pointed out with biting satire, the idea of creating a bidding war for the opportunity to gun-down one of the last of a species ostensibly in the name of conservation is perverse and dangerous to buy into. It promotes the economic axiom that scarcity equals value when dealing with living species. If an animal like the rare black rhinoceros is worth the most with a price on its head, what possible incentive does this provide range countries and local people to move the species toward recovery when the biggest buck can be made short-term by selling permits to kill them to the highest bidders?
We’ve seen this perverse economic incentive happen with polar bears and tigers, where perceived rarity has caused “collectors” to rush out and try to kill or own the last pieces of these animals, and the price for their parts have sky-rocketed, thereby making extinction that much more likely.
Another economic problem with DSC’s proposed one-off kill-for-conservation is the fallacy that this is the best way to raise money for conservation. DSC Executive Director Ben Carter offered his support for the auction to the Dallas Observer when he said, “People are talking about ‘Why don’t you do a photo safari?’ or whatever. Well, that’s great, but people don’t pay for that.”
But the truth is that non-hunting ecotourism, such as the photo safaris that Carter scoffs at, provide much greater revenue to Africa, which is a real incentive to keep rhino populations plentiful. Indeed, ecotourism has become such an important part of some African countries’ economies that governments are taking steps against hunting in order to protect this flourishing industry. For example, last year, Botswana announced a ban on hunting permits, citing its booming ecotourism sector—which now makes up 12% of national GDP—as the primary factor. Compare this to trophy hunting, which as a portion of any national economy never accounts for more than 0.27 percent of the GDP.
And while a one-time killing of a rare rhino will bring in instant cash, the result is that there is now one less rhino for all other future tourists to see, so the possible revenue generated by this animal ends right there with one vainglorious hunt for a single wealthy American.
The truth isn’t complicated: People do pay to see wild animals, without feeling the need to hack off their body parts for a private viewing in their living rooms back in Texas. In fact, a recent Synovate poll found that 70.4 percent of Americans would pay to view another disappearing species—lions—on an African safari, while only 6.6 percent of Americans would pay to hunt them.
The auction to kill one of the last wild black rhinos is just another example of the warped logic that’s exploiting our wildlife “for their own good.” It is pushing a species like the iconic black rhino closer to extinction by telling the world that rhinos are worth more to us rare and dead than healthy and flourishing in the wild where they belong.
Jeff Flocken is the North America regional director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare.